LES THÉÂTRES D'OMBRES DE MALAISIE

 

Les tours Petronas vues du Skybar de Kuala Lumpur

 

Le Masjid Negara, mosquée nationale de Kuala Lumpur

 

 

Présentation du wayang kulit Siam (Vidéo en Anglais, mais les images se suffisent à elles mêmes)


 

La Malaisie avait au début du 20ème siècle une forme de théâtre d’ombres dans chaque État de sa péninsule, mais de nos jours il n‘en reste plus qu’une seule appelée wayang kulit Siam ou wayang kulit Kelantan. Cette forme est propre à l’Etat du Kelantan, qui est proche de l’ancien royaume du Siam, l’actuelle Thaïlande. Ceci est d’autant plus surprenant que la Malaisie a une démarche très militante dans la promotion des cultures et traditions nationales. Mais Le pays est contrôlé par un parti quasi unique d'inspiration intégriste qui ne privilégie que l'islam, religion de la mojorité des citoyens. Á telle enseigne que les Malais non musulmans se sentent ravalés au rang de citoyens de seconde zone. Dans ces conditions il n’est pas étonnant qu’un art hérité de l’Inde hindoue et bouddhiste ait été si peu encouragé qu’il a disparu de nombreux États du pays.

 

Il faut dire que traditionnellement le wayang kulit malais représente les épisodes des grandes épopées indiennes, le Mahabharata et le Ramayana, dans lesquelles évoluent des dieux polythéistes. Si le Kelantan est le seul à avoir conservé son théâtre d’ombres, c’est probablement que sa population y tient particulièrement. Cette forme d’art, même si elle a perdu pour beaucoup de Malais sa fonction religieuse, reste une source de superstitions et on lui prête des vertus médicinales.

 

Wayang veut dire ombre et kulit cuir dans les langues sœurs indonésiennes et malaises, et il n’y a pas que la langue et la référence aux épopées indiennes que les deux pays partagent : Pendant de très nombreux siècles Java a eu une très grande influence sur la péninsule malaise, et pendant longtemps la Malaisie a versé un tribu aux royaumes de Java. Il y a toutefois une grande différence entre le wayang kulit javanais et le wayang kulit du Kelantan, la forme malaise utilise des marionnettes transparentes et les traditions graphiques des deux pays pour représenter les mêmes personnages ne sont pas identiques. L'esthétique des ombres malaises est également très proche des ombres thaïlandaises, mais il faut bien reconnaître que le wayang kulit Siam a tout de même crée une iconographie très spécifique des modèles javanais et thailandais et qu'elle est particulièrement belle et originale. Une dernière différence avec la Thaïlande est le fait que le wayang kulit ne se limite pas au Ramayana, mais intègre aussi à son répertoire des spectacles de Mahabharata.

Le wayang kulit kelantan est toutefois une forme d'art en voie de disparition car la plupart des dalangs (ou marionnettistes) sont très vieux et ils ont bien peu d'élèves pour assurer la relève. Il faut dire qu'en plus de devoir parfaitement maitriser un art et des épopées complexes, les dalangs malais ont la particularité d'être les seuls d'Asie du Sud Est à fabriquer leurs propres figurines.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Liens utiles: Wayang1 Wayang2 Wayang3

 

Pour la suite veuillez sélectionner un pays:

Cambodge   Chine   France   Inde   Indonésie   Thaïlande   Turquie

Ou une île indonésienne: Bali ou Java

Ou une épopée indienne: Mahabharata ou Ramayana

Ou revenir à l'Accueil: Accueil

 


 

 

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